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Index a Local Moonbeam Development Node with Subsquid

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April 14, 2023 | by Erin Shaben


When developing a dApp, it's beneficial to develop smart contracts using a local development environment as opposed to a live network, such as a TestNet or MainNet. Local development removes some of the hassles involved with developing on a live network, like having to fund development accounts and waiting for blocks to be produced. On Moonbeam, developers can spin up their own local Moonbeam development node to quickly and easily build and test applications.

But what about dApps that rely on indexers to index blockchain data? How can developers of these applications streamline the development process? Thanks to Subsquid, a query node framework for Substrate-based blockchains like Moonbeam, it is now possible to index blocks on a local development environment, such as your Moonbeam development node!

This tutorial will walk you through the process of indexing data on a local Moonbeam development node using Subsquid. We'll create an ERC-20 contract and use Subsquid to index transfers of our ERC-20.

This tutorial is based off of Massimo Luraschi's tutorial on how to Boost your dApp development productivity with local indexing, but was modified for a Moonbeam development node.

Checking Prerequisites

To follow along with this tutorial, you'll need to have:

We'll configure our Hardhat project and create our Subsquid project later on in the tutorial.

Spin up a Local Development Node

To get started, we're going to spin up a local Moonbeam development node using Docker. For the purposes of this tutorial, we're going to configure our development node to produce (seal) blocks every four seconds. This will ease the debugging process. However, you can feel free to increase or decrease this time or configure your node to instantly seal blocks. When using instant seal, a block will be created when a transaction is received.

We'll use the following commands when starting up our node:

  • --dev - specifies to use a development chain
  • --sealing 4000 - seals a block every four seconds (4000 milliseconds)
  • --ws-external - listen to all WebSocket interfaces

To spin up a development node, which will pull the latest Docker image for Moonbeam, you can run the following command:

docker run --rm --name moonbeam_development --network host \
purestake/moonbeam:v0.31.1 \
--dev --sealing 4000 --ws-external --rpc-external
docker run --rm --name moonbeam_development -p 9944:9944 \
purestake/moonbeam:v0.31.1 \
--dev --sealing 4000 --ws-external --rpc-external
docker run --rm --name moonbeam_development -p 9944:9944 ^
purestake/moonbeam:v0.31.1 ^
--dev --sealing 4000 --ws-external --rpc-external

This will start up our development node, which can be accessed on port 9944.

Spin up a Moonbeam development node

Our development node comes with 10 prefunded accounts.

Development account addresses and private keys
  • Alith:

    • Public Address: 0xf24FF3a9CF04c71Dbc94D0b566f7A27B94566cac
    • Private Key: 0x5fb92d6e98884f76de468fa3f6278f8807c48bebc13595d45af5bdc4da702133
  • Baltathar:

    • Public Address: 0x3Cd0A705a2DC65e5b1E1205896BaA2be8A07c6e0
    • Private Key: 0x8075991ce870b93a8870eca0c0f91913d12f47948ca0fd25b49c6fa7cdbeee8b
  • Charleth:

    • Public Address: 0x798d4Ba9baf0064Ec19eB4F0a1a45785ae9D6DFc
    • Private Key: 0x0b6e18cafb6ed99687ec547bd28139cafdd2bffe70e6b688025de6b445aa5c5b
  • Dorothy:

    • Public Address: 0x773539d4Ac0e786233D90A233654ccEE26a613D9
    • Private Key: 0x39539ab1876910bbf3a223d84a29e28f1cb4e2e456503e7e91ed39b2e7223d68
  • Ethan:

    • Public Address: 0xFf64d3F6efE2317EE2807d223a0Bdc4c0c49dfDB
    • Private Key: 0x7dce9bc8babb68fec1409be38c8e1a52650206a7ed90ff956ae8a6d15eeaaef4
  • Faith:

    • Public Address: 0xC0F0f4ab324C46e55D02D0033343B4Be8A55532d
    • Private Key: 0xb9d2ea9a615f3165812e8d44de0d24da9bbd164b65c4f0573e1ce2c8dbd9c8df
  • Goliath:

    • Public Address: 0x7BF369283338E12C90514468aa3868A551AB2929
    • Private Key: 0x96b8a38e12e1a31dee1eab2fffdf9d9990045f5b37e44d8cc27766ef294acf18
  • Heath:

    • Public Address: 0x931f3600a299fd9B24cEfB3BfF79388D19804BeA
    • Private Key: 0x0d6dcaaef49272a5411896be8ad16c01c35d6f8c18873387b71fbc734759b0ab
  • Ida:

    • Public Address: 0xC41C5F1123ECCd5ce233578B2e7ebd5693869d73
    • Private Key: 0x4c42532034540267bf568198ccec4cb822a025da542861fcb146a5fab6433ff8
  • Judith:

    • Public Address: 0x2898FE7a42Be376C8BC7AF536A940F7Fd5aDd423
    • Private Key: 0x94c49300a58d576011096bcb006aa06f5a91b34b4383891e8029c21dc39fbb8b

For more information on running a Moonbeam development node, please refer to the Getting Started with a Moonbeam Development Node guide.

Set Up a Hardhat Project

You should have already created an empty Hardhat project, but if you haven't done so, you can find instructions in the Creating a Hardhat Project section of our Hardhat documentation page.

In this section, we'll configure our Hardhat project for a local Moonbeam development node, create an ERC-20 contract, and write scripts to deploy and interact with our contract.

Before we dive into creating our project, let's install a couple of dependencies that we'll need: the Hardhat Ethers plugin and OpenZeppelin contracts. The Hardhat Ethers plugin provides a convenient way to use the Ethers library to interact with the network. We'll use OpenZeppelin's base ERC-20 implementation to create an ERC-20. To install both of these dependencies, you can run:

npm install @nomiclabs/hardhat-ethers ethers @openzeppelin/contracts
yarn add @nomiclabs/hardhat-ethers ethers @openzeppelin/contracts

Configure Hardhat For a Local Development Node

Before we update the configuration file, we'll need to get the private key of one of our development accounts, which will be used to deploy our contract and send transactions. For this example, we'll use Alith's private key:



You should never store your private keys in a JavaScript or Python file.

The private keys for the development accounts are public knowledge because the accounts exist within your own development environment. However, when you move on to indexing a live network such as Moonbase Alpha or Moonbeam (which is out of scope for this tutorial), you should manage your private keys with a designated secret manager or similar service.

Now we can edit hardhat.config.js to include the following network and account configurations for our Moonbeam development node:


/** @type import('hardhat/config').HardhatUserConfig */
module.exports = {
  solidity: '0.8.17',
  networks: {
    dev: { 
      url: '',
      chainId: 1281, // (hex: 0x501),
      accounts: ['0x5fb92d6e98884f76de468fa3f6278f8807c48bebc13595d45af5bdc4da702133'], // Alith's private key


With the release of Solidity v0.8.20, support for the Shanghai hard fork has been introduced, which includes PUSH0 opcodes in the generated bytecode. Support for the PUSH0 opcode on Moonbeam hasn't been rolled out yet. As such, if you'd like to use Solidity v0.8.20, you'll need to update the solidity config to use the London compiler:

solidity: {
  version: '0.8.20',
  settings: {
    evmVersion: 'london',

If you attempt to use the default compiler of Solidity v0.8.20, you will see the following error:

ProviderError: evm error: InvalidCode(Opcode(95))

Create an ERC-20 Contract

For the purposes of this tutorial, we'll be creating a simple ERC-20 contract. We'll rely on OpenZeppelin's ERC-20 base implementation. We'll start by creating a file for the contract and naming it MyTok.sol:

mkdir -p contracts && touch contracts/MyTok.sol

Now we can edit the MyTok.sol file to include the following contract, which will mint an initial supply of MYTOKs and allow only the owner of the contract to mint additional tokens:

// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.8.9;

import "@openzeppelin/contracts/token/ERC20/ERC20.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/access/Ownable.sol";

contract MyTok is ERC20, Ownable {
    constructor(uint256 initialSupply) ERC20("MyToken", "MYTOK") {
        _mint(msg.sender, initialSupply);

    function mint(address to, uint256 amount) public onlyOwner {
        _mint(to, amount);

Deploy an ERC-20 Contract

Now that we have our contract set up, we can compile and deploy our contract.

To compile the contract, you can run:

npx hardhat compile

Compile contracts using Hardhat

This command will compile our contract and generate an artifacts directory containing the ABI of the contract.

To deploy our contract, we'll need to create a deployment script that deploys our ERC-20 contract and mints an initial supply of MYTOKs. We'll use Alith's account to deploy the contract, and we'll specify the initial supply to be 1000 MYTOK. The initial supply will be minted and sent to the contract owner, which is Alith.

Let's take the following steps to deploy our contract:

  1. Create a directory and file for our script:

    mkdir -p scripts && touch scripts/deploy.js
  2. In the deploy.js file, go ahead and add the following script:

    // We require the Hardhat Runtime Environment explicitly here. This is optional
    // but useful for running the script in a standalone fashion through `node <script>`.
    // You can also run a script with `npx hardhat run <script>`. If you do that, Hardhat
    // will compile your contracts, add the Hardhat Runtime Environment's members to the
    // global scope, and execute the script.
    const hre = require('hardhat');
    async function main() {
      // Get ERC-20 Contract
      const MyTok = await hre.ethers.getContractFactory('MyTok');
      // Deploy it with Inital supply of 1000
      const myTok = await MyTok.deploy(1000000000000000000000n);
      // Wait for the Deployment
      await myTok.deployed();
      console.log(`Contract deployed to ${myTok.address}`);
    // We recommend this pattern to be able to use async/await everywhere
    // and properly handle errors.
    main().catch((error) => {
      process.exitCode = 1;
  3. Run the script using the dev network configurations we set up in the hardhat.config.js file:

    npx hardhat run scripts/deploy.js --network dev

The address of the deployed contract should be printed to the terminal. Save the address, as we'll need it to interact with the contract in the following section.

Deploy contracts using Hardhat

Transfer ERC-20s

Since we'll be indexing Transfer events for our ERC-20, we'll need to send a few transactions that transfer some tokens from Alith's account to our other test accounts. We'll do this by creating a simple script that transfers 10 MYTOKs to Baltathar, Charleth, Dorothy, and Ethan. We'll take the following steps:

  1. Create a new file script to send transactions:

    touch scripts/transactions.js
  2. In the transactions.js file, add the following script:

    // We require the Hardhat Runtime Environment explicitly here. This is optional
    // but useful for running the script in a standalone fashion through `node <script>`.
    // You can also run a script with `npx hardhat run <script>`. If you do that, Hardhat
    // will compile your contracts, add the Hardhat Runtime Environment's members to the
    // global scope, and execute the script.
    const hre = require('hardhat');
    async function main() {
      // Get Contract ABI
      const MyTok = await hre.ethers.getContractFactory('MyTok');
      // Plug ABI to Address
      const myTok = await MyTok.attach('0xc01Ee7f10EA4aF4673cFff62710E1D7792aBa8f3');
      const value = hre.ethers.utils.parseUnits('10', 'ether');
      let tx;
      // Transfer to Baltathar
      tx = await myTok.transfer('0x3Cd0A705a2DC65e5b1E1205896BaA2be8A07c6e0', value);
      await tx.wait();
      console.log(`Transfer to Baltathar with TxHash ${tx.hash}`);
      // Transfer to Charleth
      tx = await myTok.transfer('0x798d4Ba9baf0064Ec19eB4F0a1a45785ae9D6DFc', value);
      await tx.wait();
      console.log(`Transfer to Charleth with TxHash ${tx.hash}`);
      // Transfer to Dorothy
      tx = await myTok.transfer('0x773539d4Ac0e786233D90A233654ccEE26a613D9', value);
      await tx.wait();
      console.log(`Transfer to Dorothy with TxHash ${tx.hash}`);
      // Transfer to Ethan
      tx = await myTok.transfer('0xFf64d3F6efE2317EE2807d223a0Bdc4c0c49dfDB', value);
      await tx.wait();
      console.log(`Transfer to Ethan with TxHash ${tx.hash}`);
    // We recommend this pattern to be able to use async/await everywhere
    // and properly handle errors.
    main().catch((error) => {
      process.exitCode = 1;
  3. Run the script to send the transactions:

    npx hardhat run scripts/transactions.js --network dev

As each transaction is sent, you'll see a log printed to the terminal.

Send transactions using Hardhat

Now we can move on to creating our Squid to index the data on our local development node.

Create a Subsquid Project

Now we're going to create our Subquid project. First, we'll need to install the Subsquid CLI:

npm i -g @subsquid/cli

Now we'll be able to use the sqd command to interact with our Squid project. To create our project, we're going to use the -t flag, which will create a project from a template. We'll be using the EVM Squid template, which is a starter project for indexing EVM chains.

You can run the following command to create an EVM Squid named local-squid:

sqd init local-squid -t evm

This will create a Squid with all of the necessary dependencies. You can go ahead and install the dependencies:

cd local-squid && npm install

Now that we have a starting point for our project, we'll need to configure our project to index ERC-20 Transfer events from our local development node.

Index a Local Moonbeam Development Node

To index our local development node, we'll use Subsquid's EVM Archive. If you're not familiar with Subsquid, an Archive is a data lake for on-chain data. As you probably have guessed, the EVM Archive is for EVM data.

The EVM Archive is made available through Subsquid's subsquid/eth-archive-worker Docker image. We'll configure the Archive to retrieve our on-chain data by pointing it to the port that our development node is running on: 9944.

To get started, we'll create a new directory and Docker compose file for our Archive:

mkdir archive && touch archive/docker-compose.archive.yml

Next, we'll add the following code to the docker-compose.archive.yml file:

version: "3"

    image: subsquid/eth-archive-worker:latest
      RUST_LOG: "info"
      - 8080:8080
    command: [
            "--server-addr", "",
            "--db-path", "/data/db",
            "--data-path", "/data/parquet/files",
            "--request-timeout-secs", "300",
            "--connect-timeout-ms", "1000",
            "--block-batch-size", "10",
            "--http-req-concurrency", "10",
            "--best-block-offset", "10",
            "--rpc-urls", "http://host.docker.internal:9944/",
            "--max-resp-body-size", "30",
            "--resp-time-limit", "5000",
            "--query-concurrency", "16",
    # Uncomment this section on Linux machines.
    # The connection to local RPC node will not work otherwise.
    # extra_hosts:
    #   - "host.docker.internal:host-gateway"
      - database:/data/db



If you're on Linux, don't forget to uncomment the extra_hosts section.

To easily run our Archive, let's update the preexisting commands.json file, which is located in the root local-squid directory, to include an archive-up and archive-down command, which will spin up and spin down our Archive as needed:

    "$schema": "",
    "commands": {
      "archive-up": {
        "description": "Start local Moonbeam Archive",
        "cmd": ["docker-compose", "-f", "archive/docker-compose.archive.yml", "up", "-d"]
      "archive-down": {
        "description": "Stop local Moonbeam Archive",
        "cmd": ["docker-compose", "-f", "archive/docker-compose.archive.yml", "down"]
      // ...


It doesn't matter where you add the two new commands in the commands object. Feel free to add them to the top of the list or wherever you see fit.

Now we can start our Archive by running:

sqd archive-up

This will run our Archive on port 8080.

Spin up a local Subsquid EVM Archive

That's it for the Archive! Now we need to update our Squid project to index ERC-20 Transfer events, and then we'll be ready to run our indexer!

Index ERC-20 Transfers

In order to index ERC-20 transfers, we'll need to take a series of actions:

  1. Update the database schema and generate models for the data
  2. Use the MyTok contract's ABI to generate TypeScript interface classes that will be used by our Squid to index Transfer events
  3. Configure the processor to process Transfer events for the MyTok contract from our local development node and Archive. Then we'll add logic to process the Transfer events and save the processed transfer data

As mentioned, we'll first need to define the database schema for the transfer data. To do so, we'll edit the schema.graphql file, which is located in the root local-squid directory, and create a Transfer entity:

type Transfer @entity {
  id: ID!
  block: Int!
  from: String! @index
  to: String! @index
  value: BigInt!
  txHash: String!
  timestamp: BigInt!

Now we can generate the entity classes from the schema, which we'll use when we process the transfer data:

sqd codegen

Next, we can tackle the second item on our list and use our contract's ABI to generate TypeScript interface classes. We can do this by running:

sqd typegen ../artifacts/contracts/MyTok.sol/MyTok.json

Run Subsquid commands

This will generate the related TypeScript interface classes in the src/abi/MyTok.ts file. For this tutorial, we'll be accessing the events specifically.

For the third step, we'll start to update the processor. The processor fetches on-chain data from an Archive, transforms the data as specified, and saves the result. We'll tackle each of these items in the src/processor.ts file.

We'll be taking the following steps:

  1. Importing the files we generated in the previous two steps: the data model and the events interface
  2. Set the data source chain to be our local development node and the archive to be our local Archive
  3. Tell our processor to process EVM logs for our MyTok contract and filter the logs for Transfer events
  4. Add logic to process the transfer data. We'll iterate over each of the blocks and Transfer events associated with our MyTok contract, decode them, and save the transfer data to our database

You can replace all of the preexisting content in the src/processor.ts file with the following:

import { TypeormDatabase } from '@subsquid/typeorm-store';
import { EvmBatchProcessor } from '@subsquid/evm-processor';
import { Transfer } from './model';
import { events } from './abi/MyTok';

const contractAddress = '0xc01Ee7f10EA4aF4673cFff62710E1D7792aBa8f3'.toLowerCase();
const processor = new EvmBatchProcessor()
    chain: 'http://localhost:9944', // Local development node
    archive: 'http://localhost:8080', // Local Archive
  .addLog(contractAddress, {
    filter: [[events.Transfer.topic]],
    data: {
      evmLog: {
        topics: true,
        data: true,
      transaction: {
        hash: true
  }); TypeormDatabase(), async (ctx) => {
  const transfers: Transfer[] = []
  for (let c of ctx.blocks) {
    for (let i of c.items) {

      if (i.address === contractAddress && i.kind === 'evmLog'){
          if (i.transaction){
            const { from, to, value } = events.Transfer.decode(i.evmLog)
            transfers.push(new Transfer({
              id: `${String(c.header.height).padStart(10, '0')}-${i.transaction.hash.slice(3,8)}`,
              block: c.header.height,
              from: from,
              to: to,
              value: value.toBigInt(),
              timestamp: BigInt(c.header.timestamp),
              txHash: i.transaction.hash

Now we've taken all of the steps necessary and are ready to run our indexer!

Run the Indexer

To run our indexer, we're going to run a series of sqd commands:

  1. Build our project

    sqd build
  2. Launch the database:

    sqd up
  3. Remove the database migration file that comes with the EVM template and generate a new one for our new database schema:

    sqd migration:clean
    sqd migration:generate
  4. Launch the processor:

    sqd process


You can review the commands.json file to see what each sqd command does under the hood.

In your terminal, you should see your indexer starting to process blocks!

Spin up a Subsquid indexer

If your Squid isn't indexing blocks properly, make sure that your development node is running with the --sealing flag. For this example, you should have set the flag as --sealing 4000, so that a block is produced every four seconds. You can feel free to edit the sealing interval as needed. Before you try to spin up your Squid again, run the following commands to shut down your local Archive and Squid:

sqd archive-down && sqd down

Then you can start your local Archive and Squid back up:

sqd archive-up && sqd up

Finally, you should be able to start indexing again:

sqd process

Now your indexer should be indexing your development node without any problems!

Query the Indexer

To query our indexer, we'll need to launch the GraphQL server in a new terminal window:

sqd serve

The GraphQL server will be launched and you can access it at localhost:4350/graphql. Then you can query the database for all of the transfer data:

query MyQuery {
  transfers {

All of the transfers will be returned, including the transfer of the initial supply to Alith's account and the transfers from Alith to Baltathar, Charleth, Dorothy, and Ethan.

Query transfer data using the GraphQL server

And that's it! You've successfully used Subsquid to index data on a local Moonbeam development node! You can view the entire project on GitHub.

This tutorial is for educational purposes only. As such, any contracts or code created in this tutorial should not be used in production.
The information presented herein has been provided by third parties and is made available solely for general information purposes. Moonbeam does not endorse any project listed and described on the Moonbeam Doc Website ( Moonbeam Foundation does not warrant the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of this information. Any reliance you place on such information is strictly at your own risk. Moonbeam Foundation disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on this information by you or by anyone who may be informed of any of its contents. All statements and/or opinions expressed in these materials are solely the responsibility of the person or entity providing those materials and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Moonbeam Foundation. The information should not be construed as professional or financial advice of any kind. Advice from a suitably qualified professional should always be sought in relation to any particular matter or circumstance. The information herein may link to or integrate with other websites operated or content provided by third parties, and such other websites may link to this website. Moonbeam Foundation has no control over any such other websites or their content and will have no liability arising out of or related to such websites or their content. The existence of any such link does not constitute an endorsement of such websites, the content of the websites, or the operators of the websites. These links are being provided to you only as a convenience and you release and hold Moonbeam Foundation harmless from any and all liability arising from your use of this information or the information provided by any third-party website or service.
Last update: May 12, 2023
| Created: April 19, 2023