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Using Foundry to Deploy To Moonbeam

Introduction

Foundry is an Ethereum development environment written in Rust that helps developers manage dependencies, compile projects, run tests, deploy contracts, and interact with blockchains from the command line. Foundry can directly interact with Moonbeam's Ethereum API so it can be used to deploy smart contracts into Moonbeam.

Four tools make up Foundry:

  • Forge - compiles, tests, and deploys contracts
  • Cast - a command line interface for interacting with contracts
  • Anvil - a local TestNet node for development purposes that can fork preexisting networks
  • Chisel - a Solidity REPL for quickly testing Solidity snippets

This guide will cover how to use Foundry to compile, deploy, and debug Ethereum smart contracts on the Moonbase Alpha TestNet. This guide can also be adapted for Moonbeam, Moonriver, or a Moonbeam development node.

Checking Prerequisites

To get started, you will need the following:

  • Have an account with funds. You can get DEV tokens for testing on Moonbase Alpha once every 24 hours from the Moonbase Alpha Faucet
  • To test out the examples in this guide on Moonbeam or Moonriver, you will need to have your own endpoint and API key, which you can get from one of the supported Endpoint Providers
  • Have Foundry installed

Creating a Foundry Project

You will need to create a Foundry project if you don't already have one. You can create one by completing the following steps:

  1. Install Foundry if you haven't already. If on Linux or MacOS, you can run these commands:

    curl -L https://foundry.paradigm.xyz | bash
    foundryup
    

    If on Windows, you'll have to install Rust & and then build Foundry from source:

    curl --proto '=https' --tlsv1.2 -sSf https://sh.rustup.rs/ | sh
    cargo install --git https://github.com/foundry-rs/foundry foundry-cli anvil --bins --locked
    
  2. Create the project, which will create a folder with three folders within it:

    forge init foundry
    

With the default project created, you should see three folders.

  • lib - all of the project's dependencies in the form of git submodules
  • src - where to put your smart contracts (with functionality)
  • test - where to put the forge tests for your project, which are written in Solidity

In addition to these three folders, a git project will also be created along with a prewritten .gitignore file with relevant file types and folders ignored.

The Source Folder

The src folder may already contain Counter.sol, a minimal Solidity contract. Feel free to delete it. To avoid errors, you should also delete the Counter.s.sol file in the scripts folder and the Counter.t.sol file in the test folder. In the following steps, you will be deploying an ERC-20 contract. In the contracts directory, you can create the MyToken.sol file:

cd src
touch MyToken.sol

Open the file and add the following contract to it:

pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

// Import OpenZeppelin Contract
import "openzeppelin-contracts/contracts/token/ERC20/ERC20.sol";

// This ERC-20 contract mints the specified amount of tokens to the contract creator
contract MyToken is ERC20 {
  constructor(uint256 initialSupply) ERC20("MyToken", "MYTOK") {
    _mint(msg.sender, initialSupply);
  }
}

Before you attempt to compile, install OpenZeppelin contracts as a dependency. You may have to commit previous changes to git beforehand. By default, Foundry uses git submodules instead of npm packages, so the traditional npm import path and command are not used. Instead, use the name of OpenZeppelin's GitHub repository:

forge install OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-contracts

Compiling Solidity

Once all dependencies have been installed, you can compile the contract:

forge build
forge build [⠒] Compiling... [⠰] Compiling 30 files with 0.8.23 [⠔] Solc 0.8.23 finished in 2.29s Compiler run successful!

After compilation, two folders will be created: out and cache. The ABI and bytecode for your contracts will be contained within the out folder. These two folders are already ignored by the .gitignore included in the default Foundry project initialization.

Deploying the Contract

There are two primary ways to deploy contracts using Foundry. The first is the straightforward command forge create. There's also the more flexible and powerful option of foundry scripting, which runs simulations before any deployments. In the following sections, forge create and foundry scripting will both be covered.

Using Forge Create

Deploying the contract with forge create takes a single command, but you must include an RPC endpoint, a funded private key, and constructor arguments. MyToken.sol asks for an initial supply of tokens in its constructor, so each of the following commands includes 100 as a constructor argument. You can deploy the MyToken.sol contract using the following command for the correct network:

forge create --rpc-url INSERT_RPC_API_ENDPOINT \
--constructor-args 100 \
--private-key INSERT_YOUR_PRIVATE_KEY \
src/MyToken.sol:MyToken
forge create --rpc-url INSERT_RPC_API_ENDPOINT \
--constructor-args 100 \
--private-key INSERT_YOUR_PRIVATE_KEY \
src/MyToken.sol:MyToken
forge create --rpc-url https://rpc.api.moonbase.moonbeam.network \
--constructor-args 100 \
--private-key INSERT_YOUR_PRIVATE_KEY \
src/MyToken.sol:MyToken
forge create --rpc-url http://127.0.0.1:9944 \
--constructor-args 100 \
--private-key INSERT_YOUR_PRIVATE_KEY \
src/MyToken.sol:MyToken

After you've deployed the contract and a few seconds have passed, you should see the address in the terminal.

forge create --rpc-url https://rpc.api.moonbase.moonbeam.network \ --constructor-args 100 \ --private-key INSERT_PRIVATE_KEY \ src/MyToken.sol:MyToken
[⠒] Compiling... No files changed, compilation skipped Deployer: 0x3B939FeaD1557C741Ff06492FD0127bd287A421espan> Deployed to: 0xc111402Aa1136ff6224106709ae51864512eC68f Transaction hash: 0xd77fc26aa296e81f35718b5878cda98e8371f6bf33b0f57e7d92997a36cf6465

Congratulations! Your contract is live! Save the address, as you will use it to interact with this contract instance in the next step.

Deploying via Solidity Scripting

Solidity scripting is a more powerful and flexible way to deploy contracts than forge create. Writing a Solidity script is identical to writing a typical Solidity smart contract, though you won't ever deploy this contract.

You can tailor the behavior of forge script with various parameters. All components are optional except for local simulation, which is a required part of every run. The forge script command will attempt to execute all applicable steps in the following order:

  1. Local simulation - simulate the transaction(s) in a local EVM
  2. Onchain simulation - simulate the transaction(s) via the provided RPC URL
  3. Broadcasting - when the --broadcast flag is provided, and simulations succeed, the transaction(s) are dispatched
  4. Verification - API-based smart contract verification when the --verify flag and a valid API key are provided

Now, go ahead and write the script. In the script folder, create a file named MyToken.s.sol. Copy and paste the contents of the below file.

// SPDX-License-Identifier: UNLICENSED
pragma solidity ^0.8.13;

import "forge-std/Script.sol";
import "../src/MyToken.sol";

contract MyScript is Script {
    function run() external {
        uint256 deployerPrivateKey = INSERT_PRIVATE_KEY;
        vm.startBroadcast(deployerPrivateKey);

        MyToken mytoken = new MyToken(1000000000);

        vm.stopBroadcast();
    }
}

Remember

Remember never to store a production private key in a file, as shown above. This example is strictly for demonstration purposes.

Notice that even though the above script is not being deployed, it still requires all the typical formatting for a Solidity contract, such as the pragma statement.

You can deploy the MyToken.sol contract with the below command. Remember that it will execute all relevant steps in order. For this example, Foundry will first attempt a local simulation and a simulation against the provided RPC before deploying the contract. Foundry won't proceed with the deployment if any of the simulations fail.

forge script script/MyToken.s.sol --rpc-url https://rpc.api.moonbase.moonbeam.network --broadcast

If your script's execution succeeds, your terminal should resemble the output below.

forge script script/MyToken.s.sol --rpc-url https://rpc.api.moonbase.moonbeam.network --broadcast [⠒] Compiling... Script ran successfully. EIP-3855 is not supported in one or more of the RPCs used. Unsupported Chain IDs: 1287. Contracts deployed with a Solidity version equal or higher than 0.8.20 might not work properly. For more information, please see https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-3855 ## Setting up 1 EVM. ==========================
Chain 1287 Estimated gas price: 3.25 gwei Estimated total gas used for script: 1346155 Estimated amount required: 0.00437500375 ETH ==========================
Finding wallets for all the necessary addresses... Sending transactions [0 - 0]. ⠁ [00:00:00] [#################################################] 1/1 txes (0.0s) Waiting for receipts. ⠉ [00:00:25] [#############################################] 1/1 receipts (0.0s) ##### moonbase
✅ [Success]Hash: 0x95766ca2c8bc94171f9de783652d62468f004d686eb5ab82b3546774eee301bc Contract Address: 0x2A19aD12E9e8479207B78c39f5bCc848D386b9DA Block: 5881522 Paid: 0.00309613125 ETH (990762 gas * 3.125 gwei) ONCHAIN EXECUTION COMPLETE & SUCCESSFUL. Total Paid: 0.00309613125 ETH (990762 gas * avg 3.125 gwei) Transactions saved to: /Users/ubuntu-jammy/foundry/foundry/broadcast/MyToken.s.sol/1287/run-latest.json Sensitive values saved to: /Users/ubuntu-jammy/foundry/foundry/cache/MyToken.s.sol/1287/run-latest.json

And that's it! For more information about Solidity scripting with Foundry, be sure to check out Foundry's documentation site.

Interacting with the Contract

Foundry includes cast, a CLI for performing Ethereum RPC calls.

Try to retrieve your token's name using Cast, where INSERT_YOUR_CONTRACT_ADDRESS is the address of the contract that you deployed in the previous section:

cast call INSERT_YOUR_CONTRACT_ADDRESS "name()" --rpc-url INSERT_RPC_API_ENDPOINT
cast call INSERT_YOUR_CONTRACT_ADDRESS "name()" --rpc-url INSERT_RPC_API_ENDPOINT
cast call INSERT_YOUR_CONTRACT_ADDRESS "name()" --rpc-url https://rpc.api.moonbase.moonbeam.network
cast call INSERT_YOUR_CONTRACT_ADDRESS "name()" --rpc-url http://127.0.0.1:9944

You should get this data in hexadecimal format:

0x000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000002000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000074d79546f6b656e00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000

This is far from readable, but you can use Cast to convert it into your desired format. In this case, the data is text, so you can convert it into ASCII characters to see "My Token":

cast --to-ascii 0x000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000002000 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000074d7954 6f6b656e00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
MyToken
cast --to-ascii 0x000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000002000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000074d79546f6b656e00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000

You can also mutate data with cast as well. Try burning tokens by sending them to the zero address.

cast send --private-key INSERT_YOUR_PRIVATE_KEY \
--rpc-url INSERT_RPC_API_ENDPOINT \
--chain 1284 \
INSERT_YOUR_CONTRACT_ADDRESS \
"transfer(address,uint256)" 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000001 1
cast send --private-key INSERT_YOUR_PRIVATE_KEY \
--rpc-url INSERT_RPC_API_ENDPOINT \
--chain 1285 \
INSERT_YOUR_CONTRACT_ADDRESS \
"transfer(address,uint256)" 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000001 1
cast send --private-key INSERT_YOUR_PRIVATE_KEY \
--rpc-url https://rpc.api.moonbase.moonbeam.network \
--chain 1287 \
INSERT_YOUR_CONTRACT_ADDRESS \
"transfer(address,uint256)" 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000001 1
cast send --private-key INSERT_YOUR_PRIVATE_KEY \
--rpc-url http://127.0.0.1:9944 \
--chain 1281 \
INSERT_YOUR_CONTRACT_ADDRESS \
"transfer(address,uint256)" 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000001 1

The transaction will be signed by your Moonbase account and be broadcast to the network. The output should look similar to:

cast send --private-key INSERT_PRIVATE_KEY \ --rpc-url https://rpc.api.moonbase.moonbeam.network \ --chain 1287 \ INSERT_CONTRACT_ADDRESS \ "transfer(address,uint256)" 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000001 1

blockHash 0x6f99fac1bb49feccb7b0476e0ffcd3cef4c456aa9111e193ce11c7a1ab62314e blockNumber 5892860 contractAddress cumulativeGasUsed 51332 effectiveGasPrice 3125000000 gasUsed 51332 logs [{"address":"0xc111402aa1136ff6224106709ae51864512ec68f","topics":["0xddf252ad1be2c89b69 c2b068fc378daa952ba7f163c4a11628f55a4df523b3ef", "0x0000000000000000000000003b939fead155 7c741ff06492fd0127bd287a421e", "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001"], "data":"0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000001", "blockHash":"0x6f99fac1bb49feccb7b0476e0ffcd3cef4c4 56aa9111e193ce11c7a1ab62314e", "blockNumber":"0x59eafc", "transactionHash":"0xdd5f11be68d5 2967356ccf34b9a4b2632d0d5ac8932ff27e72c544320dec33e3", "transactionIndex":"0x0","logIndex":"0x0","transactionLogIndex":"0x0","removed":false}] logsBloom 0x000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000004 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000040000000000000000000000000008000000000000 00000004000000000000000000000000000000000000000100000000000000000000000000000000001 00000010000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000002000000040000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000002000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000004000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0001000000 root status 1 transactionHash 0xdd5f11be68d52967356ccf34b9a4b2632d0d5ac8932ff27e72c544320dec33e3 transactionIndex 0 type 2

Congratulations, you have successfully deployed and interacted with a contract using Foundry!

Forking with Anvil

As previously mentioned, Anvil is a local TestNet node for development purposes that can fork preexisting networks. Forking Moonbeam allows you to interact with live contracts deployed on the network.

There are some limitations to be aware of when forking with Anvil. Since Anvil is based on an EVM implementation, you cannot interact with any of the Moonbeam precompiled contracts and their functions. Precompiles are a part of the Substrate implementation and therefore cannot be replicated in the simulated EVM environment. This prohibits you from interacting with cross-chain assets on Moonbeam and Substrate-based functionality such as staking and governance.

To fork Moonbeam or Moonriver, you will need to have your own endpoint and API key which you can get from one of the supported Endpoint Providers.

To fork Moonbeam from the command line, you can run the following command from within your Foundry project directory:

anvil --fork-url INSERT_RPC_API_ENDPOINT
anvil --fork-url INSERT_RPC_API_ENDPOINT
anvil --fork-url https://rpc.api.moonbase.moonbeam.network

Your forked instance will have 10 development accounts that are pre-funded with 10,000 test tokens. The forked instance is available at http://127.0.0.1:8545/. The output in your terminal should resemble the following:

anvil --fork-url https://rpc.api.moonbase.moonbeam.network

Available Accounts ================== (0) "0xf39Fd6e51aad88F6F4ce6aB8827279cffFb92266" (10000.000000000000000000 ETH) (1) "0x70997970C51812dc3A010C7d01b50e0d17dc79C8" (10000.000000000000000000 ETH) (2) "0x3C44CdDdB6a900fa2b585dd299e03d12FA4293BC" (10000.000000000000000000 ETH) (3) "0x90F79bf6EB2c4f870365E785982E1f101E93b906" (10000.000000000000000000 ETH) (4) "0x15d34AAf54267DB7D7c367839AAf71A00a2C6A65" (10000.000000000000000000 ETH) (5) "0x9965507D1a55bcC2695C58ba16FB37d819B0A4dc" (10000.000000000000000000 ETH) (6) "0x976EA74026E726554dB657fA54763abd0C3a0aa9" (10000.000000000000000000 ETH) (7) "0x14dC79964da2C08b23698B3D3cc7Ca32193d9955" (10000.000000000000000000 ETH) (8) "0x23618e81E3f5cdF7f54C3d65f7FBc0aBf5B21E8f" (10000.000000000000000000 ETH) (9) "0xa0Ee7A142d267C1f36714E4a8F75612F20a79720" (10000.000000000000000000 ETH)
Private Keys ================== (0) 0xac0974bec39a17e36ba4a6b4d238ff944bacb478cbed5efcae784d7bf4f2ff80 (1) 0x59c6995e998f97a5a0044966f0945389dc9e86dae88c7a8412f4603b6b78690d (2) 0x5de4111afa1a4b94908f83103eb1f1706367c2e68ca870fc3fb9a804cdab365a (3) 0x7c852118294e51e653712a81e05800f419141751be58f605c371e15141b007a6 (4) 0x47e179ec197488593b187f80a00eb0da91f1b9d0b13f8733639f19c30a34926a (5) 0x8b3a350cf5c34c9194ca85829a2df0ec3153be0318b5e2d3348e872092edffba (6) 0x92db14e403b83dfe3df233f83dfa3a0d7096f21ca9b0d6d6b8d88b2b4ec1564e (7) 0x4bbbf85ce3377467afe5d46f804f221813b2bb87f24d81f60f1fcdbf7cbf4356 (8) 0xdbda1821b80551c9d65939329250298aa3472ba22feea921c0cf5d620ea67b97 (9) 0x2a871d0798f97d79848a013d4936a73bf4cc922c825d33c1cf7073dff6d409c6
Wallet ================== Mnemonic: test test test test test test test test test test test junk Derivation path: m/44'/60'/0'/0/
Fork ================== Endpoint: https://rpc.api.moonbase.moonbeam.network Block number: 5892944 Block hash: 0xc9579299f55d507c305d5357d4c1b9d9c550788ddb471b0231d8d0146e7144b7 Chain ID: 1287
Base Fee ================== 125000000
Gas Limit ================== 30000000
Genesis Timestamp ================== 1705278817
Listening on 127.0.0.1:8545

To verify you have forked the network, you can query the latest block number:

curl --data '{"method":"eth_blockNumber","params":[],"id":1,"jsonrpc":"2.0"}' -H "Content-Type: application/json" -X POST localhost:8545 

If you convert the result from hex to decimal, you should get the latest block number from the time you forked the network. You can cross reference the block number using a block explorer.

From here you can deploy new contracts to your forked instance of Moonbeam or interact with contracts already deployed. Building off of the previous example in this guide, you can make a call using Cast to check the balance of the minted MYTOK tokens in the account you deployed the contract with:

cast call INSERT_CONTRACT_ADDRESS  "balanceOf(address)(uint256)" INSERT_YOUR_ADDRESS --rpc-url http://localhost:8545

Using Chisel

Chisel is a Solidity REPL or shell. It allows a developer to write Solidity directly in the console for testing small snippets of code, letting developers skip the project setup and contract deployment steps for what should be a quick process.

Since Chisel is mainly useful for quick testing, it can be used outside of a Foundry project. But, if executed within a Foundry project, it will keep the configurations within foundry.toml when running.

For this example, you will be testing out some of the features of abi within Solidity because it is complex enough to demonstrate how Chisel could be useful. To get started using Chisel, run the following in the command line to start the shell:

chisel

In the shell, you can write Solidity code as if it were running within a function:

bytes memory myData = abi.encode(100, true, "Develop on Moonbeam");

Let's say you were interested in how abi encoded data because you're looking into how to most efficiently store data on the blockchain and thus save gas. To view how the myData is stored in memory, you can use the following command while in the Chisel shell:

!memdump

memdump will dump all of the data in your current session. You'll likely see something like this below. If you aren't good at reading hexadecimal or if you don't know how ABI encoding works, then you might not be able to find where the myData variable has been stored.

chisel
Welcome to Chisel! Type `!help` to show available commands. bytes memory myData = abi.encode(100, true, "Develop on Moonbeam");
!memdump [0x00:0x20]: 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 [0x20:0x40]: 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 [0x40:0x60]: 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000140 [0x60:0x80]: 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 [0x80:0xa0]: 0x00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000a0 [0xa0:0xc0]: 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000064 [0xc0:0xe0]: 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001 [0xe0:0x100]: 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000060 [0x100:0x120]: 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000013 [0x120:0x140]: 0x446576656c6f70206f6e204d6f6f6e6265616d00000000000000000000000000

Fortunately, Chisel lets you easily figure out where this information is stored. Using the !rawstack command, you can find the location in the stack where the value of a variable:

!rawstack myData

In this situation, since bytes is over 32 bytes in length, the memory pointer is displayed instead. But that's exactly what's needed since you already know the entirety of the stack from the !memdump command.

chisel
Welcome to Chisel! Type `!help` to show available commands. bytes memory myData = abi.encode(100, true, "Develop on Moonbeam");
!memdump [0x00:0x20]: 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 [0x20:0x40]: 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 [0x40:0x60]: 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000140 [0x60:0x80]: 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 [0x80:0xa0]: 0x00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000a0 [0xa0:0xc0]: 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000064 [0xc0:0xe0]: 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001 [0xe0:0x100]: 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000060 [0x100:0x120]: 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000013 [0x120:0x140]: 0x446576656c6f70206f6e204d6f6f6e6265616d00000000000000000000000000 !rawstack myData
Type: bytes32 └ Data: 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000080

The !rawstack command shows that the myData variable is stored at 0x80, so when comparing this with the memory dump retrieved from the !memdump command, it looks like myData is stored like this:

[0x80:0xa0]: 0x00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000a0
[0xa0:0xc0]: 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000064
[0xc0:0xe0]: 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001
[0xe0:0x100]: 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000060
[0x100:0x120]: 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000013
[0x120:0x140]: 0x446576656c6f70206f6e204d6f6f6e6265616d00000000000000000000000000

At first glance, this makes sense, since 0xa0 has a value of 0x64 which is equal to 100, and 0xc0 has a value of 0x01 which is equal to true. If you want to learn more about how ABI-encoding works, the Solidity documentation for ABI is helpful. In this case, there are a lot of zeros in this method of data packing, so as a smart contract developer you might instead try to use structs or pack the data together more efficiently with bitwise code.

Since you're done with this code, you can clear the state of Chisel so that it doesn't mess with any future logic that you want to try out (while running the same instance of Chisel):

!clear

There's an even easier way to test with Chisel. When writing code that ends with a semicolon (;), Chisel will run it as a statement, storing its value in Chisel's runtime state. But if you only needed to see how the ABI-encoded data was represented, then you could get away with running the code as an expression. To try this out with the same abi example, write the following in the Chisel shell:

abi.encode(100, true, "Develop on Moonbeam")

You should see something like the following:

!clear Cleared session! abi.encode(100, true, "Develop on Moonbeam") Type: dynamic bytes ├ Hex (Memory): ├─ Length ([0x00:0x20]): 0x00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000a0 ├─ Contents ([0x20:..]): 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000064 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000060 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001 34446576656c6f70206f6e204d6f6f6e6265616d00000000000000000000000000 ├ Hex (Tuple Encoded): ├─ Pointer ([0x00:0x20]): 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000020 ├─ Length ([0x20:0x40]): 0x00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000a0 └─ Contents ([0x40:..]): 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000064 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000060 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001 34446576656c6f70206f6e204d6f6f6e6265616d00000000000000000000000000

While it doesn't display the data in the same way, you still get the contents of the data, and it also further breaks down how the information is coded, such as letting you know that the 0xa0 value defines the length of the data.

By default, when you leave the Chisel shell, none of the data is persisted. But you can instruct chisel to do so. For example, you can take the following steps to store a variable:

  1. Store a uint256 in Chisel

    uint256 myNumber = 101;
    

  2. Store the session with !save. For this example, you can use the number 1 as a save ID

    !save 1
    

  3. Quit the session

    !quit
    

Then to view and interact with your stored Chisel states, you can take the following steps:

  1. View a list of saved Chisel states

    chisel list
    

  2. Load your stored states

    chisel load 1
    

  3. View the uint256 saved in Chisel from the previous set of steps

    !rawstack myNumber
    

uint256 myNumber = 101; !save 1 Saved session to cache with ID = 1 !quit chisel list ⚒️ Chisel Sessions ├─ "2024-01-15 01:17:34" - chisel-1.json chisel load 1 Welcome to Chisel! Type `!help` to show available commands. !rawstack myNumber Type: bytes32 └ Data: 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000065

You can even fork networks while using Chisel:

!fork https://rpc.api.moonbase.moonbeam.network

Then, for example, you can query the balance of one of Moonbase Alpha's collators:

0x4c5A56ed5A4FF7B09aA86560AfD7d383F4831Cce.balance
!fork https://rpc.api.moonbase.moonbeam.network Set fork URL to https://rpc.api.moonbase.moonbeam.network 0x4c5A56ed5A4FF7B09aA86560AfD7d383F4831Cce.balance Type: uint ├ Hex: 0x000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000358affd3d76ebb78555 └ Decimal: 15803094286802091476309

If you want to learn more about Chisel, download Foundry and refer to its official reference page.

Foundry With Hardhat

Often, there will be the case where a project that you wish to integrate with has all of its setup within Hardhat, making it an arduous task to convert the entirety of the project into Foundry. This additional work is avoidable by creating a hybrid project that uses both Hardhat and Foundry features together. This is possible with Hardhat's hardhat-foundry plugin.

To convert your preexisting Foundry project to a hybrid project, you will essentially have to install a Hardhat project into the same folder:

npm init
npm install --save-dev hardhat @nomicfoundation/hardhat-foundry
npx hardhat init

For more information, please refer to our documentation on Creating a Hardhat Project.

After initializing the new Hardhat project, a few new folders and files should appear: contracts, hardhat.config.js, scripts, and test/Lock.js. You'll need to make a few modifications to create a hybrid project:

  1. Edit the hardhat.config.js file within your repository. Open it up, and at the top, add the following:

    require("@nomicfoundation/hardhat-foundry");
    

    After adding the hardhat-foundry plugin, the typical contracts folders for Hardhat will not work because now Hardhat expects all smart contracts to be stored within Foundry's src folder

  2. Move all smart contracts within the contracts folder into the src folder, and then delete the contracts folder

  3. Edit the foundry.toml file to ensure that dependencies installed via Git submodules and npm can be compiled by the Forge tool. Edit the profile.default to ensure that the libs entry has both lib and node_modules:

    [profile.default]
    src = 'src'
    out = 'out'
    libs = ['lib', 'node_modules']
    solc = '0.8.20'
    evm_version = 'london'
    

Now both forge build and npx hardhat compile should work regardless of the dependencies.

Both forge test and npx hardhat test should now be able to access all smart contracts and dependencies. forge test will only test the Solidity tests, whereas npx hardhat test will only test the JavaScript tests. If you would like to use them in conjunction, then you can create a new script within your package.json file:

"scripts": {
    "test": "npx hardhat test && forge test"
}

You can run this command with:

npm run test

Finally, while not necessary, it could be worthwhile to move all JavaScript scripts from the scripts folder into Foundry's script folder and delete the scripts folder so that you don't have two folders that serve the same purpose.

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Last update: January 23, 2024
| Created: July 25, 2022